Perl 6: There Are Traitors In Our Midst!

Ahoy, matey! I heard thar be traitors in our ranks! We need t' search t' ship 'n find every last one o' them, put them through exquisite torture, 'n then make them swim t' plank. Now t' ye, I gift a task! Learn everythin' ye can 'bout these traitors 'n all o' t' "traits" they use. Ye succeed, a full barrel o' spiced rum gunna be me generous gift t' ye!

PART I: Built-In Traits

Traits! In Perl 6, they're subs executed at compile time that make your code tight and sexy. There's a whole bunch of them built into Perl 6 and today we'll explore some of them.

is ...

sub foo ($bar is copy) is export { ... }
has $.foo is rw is required;
class Foo is Bar { ... }

There are several built-in traits that you apply with the is keyword. Let's take a look at some of the oft-used:

is export

# In Foo.pm6
unit module Foo;
sub foo is export           { }
sub bar is export(:special) { }

# In foo.p6
use Foo; # only foo() available for use
use Foo :special; # only bar() available for use
use Foo :ALL; # both foo() and bar() available for use

The is export trait makes your things automatically exported, for use by other packages that use yours. You can also create categories by giving a named argument to export(). That argument can be specified when useing your module to export that specific category. You can export more than one category at a time. Just list them with commas:

use Foo :special, :real-special;

Three predefined categories exist: :ALL that exports all of is export symbols, :DEFAULT that exports those with bare is export without arguments, and :MANDATORY marks symbols that will be exported regardless of what argument is given during use.

Of course, you can export constants, variables, and classes too:

our constant Δ is export = 0.5;
our $bar       is export = 10;
our Class Bar is export { ... };

The trait is really just sugar for UNIT::EXPORT::* magic, which you can use directly if you need more control.

is copy

When your subroutine or method recieves parameters, they are read-only. Any attempt to modify them will result in a fatal error. At times when you do wish to fiddle with them, simply apply is copy trait to them in the signature:

sub foo ($x is copy) { $x = 42; }
sub bar ($x        ) { $x = 42; }

my $original = 72;
foo $original; # works; $original is still 72
bar $original; # fatal error;

And don't worry, that won't affect the caller's data. To do that, you'll need the is rw trait...

is rw

The rw in is rw trait is short for "read-write" and this concise trait packs a ton of value. Let's break it up:

modifying caller's values

sub foo ($x is rw) { $x = 42 };

my $original = 72;
foo $original;
say $original; # prints 42

If you apply is rw to a parameter of a sub or method, you'll have access to caller's variable. Modifying this parameter will affect the caller, as can be seen above, where we change the value of $original by assigning to the parameter inside the sub.

writable attributes

class Foo {
    has $.foo is rw;
    has $.bar;
} = 42; # works = 42; # fatal error

Your classes' public attributes are read-only by default. By simply applying the is rw trait, you can let the users of your class assign values to the attribute after the object has been created. Keep in mind: this is only relevant to the public interface; inside the class, you can still modify the values of even read-only attributes using the $! twigil (i.e. $!bar = 42).

LHS subroutines/methods

The is rw trait applied to attibutes, as you've seen in previous section, is just syntax sugar for automatically creating a private attribute and a method for it. Notice, in the code below we applied is rw trait on the method. This makes it return the writable container the caller can use to assign to:

class Foo {
    has $!bar;
    method bar is rw { $!bar }
} = 42;

In the same manner, we can create subroutines that can be used on the left hand side and be assigned to. In the following example, we create a custom postcircumfix operator (which is just a special sub) for using fancy-pants "parentheses" to do hash look ups. The is rw trait makes the sub return a writable container which lets us assign a new value to a hash key:

sub postcircumfix:<᚜  ᚛> ($before, $inside) is rw {
my %hash = :foo<bar>;
%hash᚜'foo'᚛ = 42;
say %hash<foo>

NOTE: if you use explicit return in your sub, the is rw trait won't work. What you're supposed to be using is for this is return-rw keyword instead, and if you do use it, is rw trait is not needed. I don't think that is the ideal behaviour, but I've been wrong before.

is required

As the name suggests, is required trait marks class attributes and named parameters as mandatory. If those are not provided at object instantiation or method/sub call, a fatal error will be thrown:

class Foo {
    has $.bar is required;
my $obj =; # fatal error, asks for `bar`

sub foo ( :$bar is required ) { }
foo; # fatal error, asks for $bar named arg

is Type/Class/Role

role  Foo { method zop { 'Foo' } }
role  Bar { method zop { 'Bar' } }
class Mer { method zop { 'Mer' } }

class Meow is Int is Foo is Bar is Mer { };

my $obj = 25;
say $obj.sqrt; # 5
say $obj.zop;  # Foo

First a note: this is NOT the way to apply Roles; you should use does. When you use is, they simply get punned and applied as a class.

Using is keyword followed by a Type or Class inherits from them. The Meow class constructed above is itself empty, but due to inherting from Int type takes an integer and provides all of Int methods. We also get method zop, which is provided by the punned role Foo. And despite both roles providing it too, we don't get any errors, because those roles got punned.


Let's try out our previous example, but this type compose the roles correctly, using the does trait:

role  Foo { method zop { 'Foo' } }
role  Bar { method zop { 'Bar' } }
class Mer { method zop { 'Mer' } }

class Meow is Int does Foo does Bar is Mer { };

# ===SORRY!=== Error while compiling
# Method 'zop' must be resolved by class Meow because it exists in multiple roles (Bar, Foo)

This time the composition correctly fails. The does trait is what you use to compose roles.


subset Primes of Int where *.is-prime;
my Array of Primes $foo;
$foo.push: 2; # success
$foo.push: 4; # fail, not a prime

The of trait gets an honourable mention. It's used in creation of subsets or, for example, restricting elements of an array to a particular type.


This isn't an exhaustive list of traits in Rakudo Perl 6 compiler, but these are the traits you'll likely use most often in your programs. Unmentioned are is DEPRECATED to mark subs as deprecated, there's is default that lets variables have a different value when they contain a Nil, and there's even a currently-experimental is cached trait that caches sub return values. Traits are prevalent in Perl 6 code and it's important to understand how to use them.

Oi, Matey! Seems th' traitors be way more advanced than us 'n their code be much cleaner, powerful, 'n beautiful! It'd be suicide to be off against all 'o them! ye still want that spiced rum? Find out how we could use th' trators' methods 'n improve upon them! Do that 'n a chest 'o gold gunna be yours, as well as th' hooch!

To be continued

1 Comment

Great intro. Thanks!

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About Zoffix Znet

user-pic I blog about Perl.